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//Linux Commands

Basic Linux Commands

Published On : DD MM YYYBy : Mr. SAGE
Basic Linux Commands

Understanding Linux and the basic Linux commands are critical prereqs for a cyber competition. you can also enroll for our free course Linux Masterclass to learn more about linux commands. Below are basic examples of important Linux commands.

Basic Linux Commands :

ls - list directory content
cat - view file contents
file - determine file type
mkdir - make directory
rmdir - remove directory
cp - copy files and directories
mv - move files and directories
rm - remove files and directories
touch - create a blank file
wc - count words, lines or chars
sort - sort the content of a file
head - print first few lines
tail - prints last 10 lines( default)
pwd - print the current working directory
whoami - display the current user
history - list previous commands
locate - find files and directories
find - search file, dir or necessery data in specified location
grep - search for data in files
su - change user or superuser
sudo - temporarily superuser
chmod - modify file access rights
chown - change file ownership
chgrp - change group ownership
man - help details
zip - create and extract zip
md5sum - check for file tamper
free - free and used ram
uname - basic system info including kernel name, version, and release.
top - running and active real-time processes

File System :

/bin - user binaries
/boot - boot-up related files
/dev - interface for system devices
/etc - system configuration files
/home - base directory for user files
/lib - critical software libraries
/opt - third party software
/proc - system and running programs
/root - home directory of root user
/sbin - system administrator binaries
/tmp - temporary files
/usr - less critical files
/var - variable system files

Read, Write and Execute (rwx) :

Read, Write and Execute

Updates / Upgrades :

sudo apt update -y
sudo apt upgrade -y

Network Commands :

ifconfig - interface configurator, gives the details of all networks
ip addr - latest and updated version of ifconfig command
traceroute - detects the delay and determines the pathway to your target
tracepath - similar to traceroute
ping - checks for the network connectivity between two nodes
netstat - provides statistical figures about different interfaces
ss - similar to netstat but more informative
dig - it is used to find query related info
nslookup - used to find dns related query
route - manipulate and shows ip routing table
host - displays the domain name for a given ip
arp - it is used to view and add content to kernel's arp table
iwconfig - it is used to configure the wireless interface and view the basic wifi details
hostname - view and set the hostname of
curl - transfer data from/to server
wget - downloading files from the internet through cli
ssh - log into a remote machine
whois - used to fetch all the info related to a website
iftop - it is used in traffic monitoring
tcpdump - captures the traffic that is passing through the network interface and displays it

System Info :

nbtstat -a ip - get hostname for ip
id - current username
w - logged on users
who -a - user information
last -a - last users logged on
ps -ef - process listing (top)
df -h - disk usage (free)
uname -a - kernel version/cpu info
mount - t1ounted file sjstems
getent passwd - show list of users
path~$path:/home/mypath - add to path variable
kill pid - kills process with pid
cat /etc/issue - show os info
cat /etc/'release' - show os version info
cat /proc/version - show kernel info
rpm --querj -all - installed pkgs (redhat)
rpm -ivh ) .rpm - install rpm (-e~remove)
dpkg -get-selections - installed pkgs (ubuntu)
dpkg -i '.deb - install deb (-r~remove)
pkginfo - installed pkgs (solaris)
which tscsh/csh/ksh/bash - show location of executable
chmod 750 tcsh/csh/ksh - disable shell , force bash

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