What is Linux, Kernel, User and Groups, File System, Permissions, Command Line etc.
Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting critical systems and sensitive information from digital attacks. Also known as information technology (IT) security, cybersecurity measures are designed to combat threats against networked systems and applications, whether those threats originate from inside or outside of an organization..
Linux is an extremely popular operating system for hackers because there are many open source Linux Security Distros available for pentesting. Read More : https://hacktronian.in/resources/operating-system
BUT, many people claim that if you don't use Linux you are not a Hacker, which is a very silly statement. if you know what to do and how to do you can use any operating system you want.
A penetration test is based on a five-phase methodology : Planning, Reconnaissance, Scanning, Exploitation / Post Exploitation and Reporting. Learn More : https://hacktronian.in/post/pentesting-methodology
There are no fixed criteria to become a hacker. You have to evaluate the skills you need and then improve them through study and practice, and most importantly you have to improve your "Think Outside-The-Box" ability. Read This : http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html
Phishing is a type of social engineering where an attacker sends a fraudulent message designed to trick a person into revealing sensitive information like username, password, creit card details to the attacker or to deploy malicious software on the victim's infrastructure like ransomware or any other malware.
Penetration Testing is a specific term and focuses only on discovering the vulnerabilities, risks, and target environment with the purpose of securing and taking control of the system. or in other words, penetration testing targets the respective organization’s defence systems consisting of all computer systems and its infrastructure. on the other hand, Ethical Hacking is an extensive term that covers all hacking techniques, and other associated computer attack techniques. so, along with discovering the security flaws and vulnerabilities, and ensuring the security of the target system, it is beyond hacking the system but with permission in order to safeguard the security for future purposes. hence, we can that, it is an umbrella term and penetration testing is one of the features of ethical hacking.